Jennifer Hellwig, MS, RD
Thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth. It usually begins on the tongue and inside of the cheeks, and may spread to the palate, gums, tonsils, and throat.
Severe, untreated thrush can spread to the:
Thrush is caused by a fungus. There are many microorganisms that normally live in the mouth. When these organisms become imbalanced, the fungus can grow and cause thrush. The imbalance of organisms may be caused by a medical condition or medication.
Factors that may increase your baby's chance of getting thrush include:
Factors that may increase your child's chance of getting thrush include:
Thrush may cause the following in infants:
Thrush may cause the following in children:
The doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done, including an inspection of the mouth. Diagnosis can usually be done after physical exam. The doctor may take a sample of cells from the affected area. The sample will be examined under a microscope to confirm thrush or look for other infections.
The goal of treatment is to restore the normal balance of bacteria and yeast in the mouth. If any underlying conditions contribute to thrush, they will also be treated.
In infants, antifungal medications may be a gel or a rinses that are swished around your baby's mouth. Systemic medications may be used if:
Breastfeeding mothers of babies with thrush can use a topical antifungal medication on their nipples to reduce the baby's infection.
Antifungal medications for children may include oral tablets, rinses, or lozenges that dissolve in the mouth.
Oral hygiene practices that may aid in healing include:
To help reduce your child's chance of getting thrush, take these steps:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
Canadian Dental Association
Public Health Agency of Canada
Babies and kids healthy habits. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/babies-and-kids/healthy-habits. Accessed December 9, 2013.
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Oral candidiasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/Candidiasis/thrush. Updated May 6, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2013.
Oral candidiasis in children and adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 1, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2013.
Oral candidiasis in infants. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 26, 2013. Accessed December 9, 2013.
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Last reviewed December 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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