Editorial Staff and Contributors
Sjogren's syndrome is an inflammatory disease. The immune system destroys cells in exocrine glands. It occurs most often in the tear and salivary glands. It is a lifelong condition. There are two types:
The causes of Sjogren's are unknown. Contributing factors may include:
Women and people between the ages of 40-60 years old are at increased risk. Factors that increase your risk for Sjogren's include:
Symptoms may include:
In some cases, other parts of the body are affected as well. These include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
You may be referred to a specialist. You may also be referred to a dentist for an exam.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Your eyes may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may also be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
There is no cure for Sjogren's. No treatment can restore the ability of the glands to produce moisture.
The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms.
You may be given medications to relieve:
Lifestyle changes may help to relieve symptoms. These include:
People with severe cases of this syndrome are at increased risk for developing cancers such as
thyroid cancer. This is a cancer of the white blood cells. Your doctor will need to monitor you for this.
There are no guidelines for preventing Sjogren's syndrome. The cause is unknown.
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation
Fox RI. Sjogren’s syndrome.
Kassan SS, Montsopolous HM. Clinical manifestations of Sjogren’s disease.
Arch Intern Med.
Papas, et al. Successful treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in Sjogren's syndrome patients with oral pilocarpine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-adjustment study.
J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:169-177.
Pertovaara M, Korpela M, et al. Clinical follow up study of 87 patients with sicca symptoms (dryness of eyes or mouth, or both).
Ann Rheum Dis.
Ramos-Casals M, Tzioufas AG, Font J. Primary Sjögren's syndrome: new clinical and therapeutic concepts.
Ann Rheum Dis.
Sjogren syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116074/Sjogren-syndrome. Updated October 22, 2015. Accessed September 9, 2016.
Sjogren's syndrome. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at:
http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Sj%C3%B6gren_s_Syndrome. Updated July 2012. Accessed December 16, 2014.
Venables PJ. Management of patients presenting with Sjogren's syndrome.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2006;20:791-807.
7/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Liang Y, Yang Z, et al. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and malignancy risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;73(6):1151-1156.
11/9/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Valdes AM, et al. Familial aggregation of systemic lupus erythematosus and coaggregation of autoimmune diseases in affected families. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(9):1518-1526.
2/22/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116074/Sjogren-syndrome: Luciano N, Baldini, Tarantini G, et al. Ultrasonography of major salivary glands: a highly specific tool for distinguishing primary Sjögren's syndrome from undifferentiated connective tissue diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015;54(12):2198-2204.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Kari Kassir, MD
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services. All rights reserved.