Debra Wood, RN
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder. It is an irrational fear of being trapped in places or situations where escape is difficult. People with agoraphobia may not leave the house.
The exact cause of anxiety disorders is not known. Agoraphobia often occurs with
panic disorders. People with a panic disorder may having a panic attack and not having anyone around to help them. This can lead them to avoid certain places or situations. Other factors that may contribute to the development of agoraphobia include:
Factors that may increase your chance of agoraphobia include:
Feared situations may trigger a panic attack. Attacks start quickly and peak in about 10 minutes. A panic attack usually includes four or more of the following:
Agoraphobia is also commonly associated with the following conditions:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be asked questions about your:
There are no tests for agoraphobia or panic disorder. Your doctor may order heart or blood tests done to look for an underlying cause.
Treatment aims to help you overcome irrational fears and live more independently. Goals include:
Treatments may include:
Cognitive therapy can help to change troublesome thought patterns.
Behavioral therapy will help you learn how you can alter your actions. The combination therapy will help you:
Exposure therapy exposes you to the factor causing the fear while in a safe environment. The sessions often include repeated, detailed imagining of the traumatic experience. The therapy will help people face their fear and gain control of it while it is happening. Exposure therapy methods range anywhere from a gradual approach to the fear to complete confrontation all at once.
Exposure therapy may be done alone or in combination with other treatments.
Your doctor may prescribe medication as well as therapy. Medication options may include:
It is important to take all medications as instructed by the doctor.
Stress management may also help. Lifestyle changes to manage stress include:
Agoraphobia often develops as a response to panic attacks. If you have had a panic attack, instead of avoiding the place or situation, seek medical care. Early treatment for panic attacks can help prevent agoraphobia.
American Psychiatric Association
Anxiety Disorders Association of America
Mental Health America
Canadian Mental Health Association
Mental Health Canada
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Phobias. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/phobias. Accessed March 4, 2013.
PTSD. American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.psychiatry.org/ptsd. Accessed March 4, 2013.
Symptoms. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia/symptoms. Accessed March 4, 2013.
Last reviewed February 2013 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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