The secret to lasting youth may not lie in a pill or potion, but in produce! Carrots, spinach, and broccoli—among other vegetables—contain compounds known as antioxidants.
As the body uses oxygen, free radicals—oxygen molecules that are missing electrons—are formed. These free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells. This cell damage is thought to build up over time and may lead to aging and disease. Everything from
and heart disease, to wrinkles and
may be attributed to the action of free radicals. Environmental factors, such as exposure to radiation and tobacco smoke may also increase the number of free radicals in the body.
Antioxidants are compounds that work to deactivate free radicals. The best known antioxidants are vitamins A, E, C and beta-carotene, but there are many others, including selenium, lutein, and lycopene.
The ability of antioxidant supplements to prevent disease has not been widely supported by scientific evidence. Some observational studies (which track participants without making changes to their diet or treatments) have found reduced risk of certain diseases with a higher intake of fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidants. However, clinical trials have not shown any benefit.
One exception is the National Eye Institute study of age-related eye disease. It found that a combination of antioxidants and zinc reduced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by 25% in people who had intermediate or advanced AMD in one eye. The risk was reduced by about 17% when antioxidants were used alone. Other studies demonstrated slowing of disease progression in patients with AMD or cataracts.
Some studies have suggested that for certain people, over consumption of antioxidants can be harmful. Studies of beta-carotene in humans were stopped in 1994, after results suggested that people at risk for cancer were at even greater risk after taking high doses of synthetic beta-carotene. Taking more than 400 units a day for more than a year increases your risk of death from any cause.
Though the jury is still out on the role of antioxidant
as disease and age fighters, consuming more antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables has well-documented benefits in improving health, aside from their antioxidant contents.
The American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society do not endorse antioxidant supplements for the general population, but they do recommend a diet with plenty of antioxidant-rich fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. You should also discuss any antioxidant use with your doctor before you begin.
American Heart Association
National Institute on Aging
Canadian Cancer Society
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
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The heart outcomes prevention evaluation study investigators, vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk women.
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Selenium. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/biomedical-libraries/natural-alternative-treatments. Updated August 22, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Vitamin A. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 6, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Vitamin C. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 3, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Vitamin E. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 6, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Last reviewed July 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
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