Editorial Staff and Contributors
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck.
is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. A healthy thyroid produces the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which control metabolism. This affects how many calories you burn, how warm you feel, how much you weigh, and how the body handles functions of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Hypothyroidism results in a slower metabolism and a slower heartbeat.
Hashimotos thyroiditis occurs when the
immune system produces antibodies that attack cells of the thyroid gland.
This results in thyroid swelling. Other less common causes include hypothyroidism as a result of neck
for lymphoma and treatment of hyperthyroidism or
with radioactive iodine or surgery.
Other causes of hypothyroidism include:
About 5% of Americans have hypothyroidism. This condition usually occurs in adults. However, in some cases, children or infants may have hypothyroidism (called
cretinism). Children need treatment as quickly as possible or
Garber JR, Hennessey JV, et al. Clinical update. Managing the challenges of hypothyroidism.
J Fam Pract.
Hypothyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 19, 2012. Accessed November 20, 2012.
Hypothyroidism. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service website. Available at:
http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/Hypothyroidism/. Updated February 27, 2012. Accessed November 20, 2012.
Vanderpump MPJ, Tunbridge WMG, et al. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham survey.
Last reviewed March 2015 by Kim A. Carmichael, MD, FACP
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