Julie J. Martin, MS
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia. It affects people who have a weakened immune system. PCP is the most common serious infection among people with
PCP is caused by a fungus.
Most believe that the fungus
is spread in the air but it is not clear if the fungus lives in soil or elsewhere. In healthy people, the fungus can exist in the lungs without causing pneumonia. However, in people who have a weakened immune system, the fungus can spread and cause a lung infection.
A weakened immune system can put you at risk for PCP. The immune system may be weakened in people who:
Symptoms of PCP usually develop over the course of a few weeks or months. The main symptoms of PCP are:
See your doctor immediately if you have any these symptoms.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. To confirm PCP, a sample of mucus from your lungs will be examined under the microscope. Your doctor will collect samples by giving you either:
If you get PCP, your treatment will depend on how serious the infection is. Your doctor will choose the appropriate ones. If you have a mild case, you will be given medication in pill form. If you have a severe case, you will probably be treated in the hospital by IV. Anti-infectious agents will be given and corticosteroids may be needed in severe cases when blood oxygen falls below a certain level. Other supportive treatments may be needed to help you breathe.
Even when treatment is given for PCP, the death rate is 15% to 20%. It’s best to avoid getting PCP in the first place.
PCP infections can cause damage to your lungs and affect your overall health. Preventing a PCP infection is an important first step. A healthy immune system is the best prevention for PCP. See your doctor as recommended to help monitor your immune system. If you have HIV, follow your treatment program to keep your immune system healthy. This will help prevent a PCP infection.
If you are at risk for PCP, your doctor may recommend that you take medicine to prevent getting it. Take preventative medication as recommended, do not skip doses. PCP prevention with medication may be recommended if:
You may have heard of a
pneumonia vaccine. This only protects you from a different kind of pneumonia. It will not prevent you from getting PCP.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Infectious Diseases
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
National Institutes of Health
Canadian Health Network
Canadian HIV/AIDS Information Centre
The Lung Association
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. American Fam Physician. [serial online] 1999;60. Available at:
http://www.aafp.org/afp/991015ap/991015a.html. Accessed May 14, 2013.
pneumonia. Dynamed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 4, 2012. Accessed May 20, 2013.
Pneumocystis pneumonia. CDC website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/pneumocystis-pneumonia/definition.html. Accessed May 20, 2013.
Last reviewed March 2014 by David L. Horn, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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