Plantain (not to be confused with the relative of the banana known by the same name) is a small weed often found in cultivated fields and at the edge of lawns. Traditionally, the crushed leaves were applied to the skin to treat wounds and bites, a leaf tincture was used for coughs, and the dried leaf was taken internally for the treatment of bronchitis, ulcers, epilepsy, and liver problems.
Very weak evidence, too weak to rely upon at all, has been used to indicate that topical plantain is helpful for skin conditions, including poison ivy and
Similarly weak evidence from two studies performed in Bulgaria hint that oral plantain may be helpful for
Plantain extracts do appear to have anti-inflammatory effects, at least in the test tube.5,6 However, unlike most pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory drugs, which work on the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) systems, one study suggests that plantain may work in a different fashion, by decreasing levels of nitric oxide.5
Whether this indicates any real potential benefit in people remains unknown.
Other possible actions of plantain constituents based on test-tube studies include
7 and anti-viral actions.8,9
Contrary to some reports, one study found that plantain does not have diuretic (kidney-stimulating) effects.10
A typical dose of plantain for oral use is 1–3 grams three times daily.11
Syrups and tinctures are used for coughs.
Plantain contains active substances in the iridoid glycoside family, especially aucubin, catalpol, and acteoside.12-14 The highest levels are found when the plant is collected in mid-fall.14
Other potentially active ingredients fall in the phenolic category, such as caffeic acid. Some plantain products are standardized to levels of one or more of these ingredients, but it is not clear whether this produces a “better” product.
Plantain appears to be relatively safe, but comprehensive safety studies have not been performed.
Plantain grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals such as thallium or antimony may develop relatively high concentrations of these potential toxins.15,16
In 1997, the FDA reported that some “plantain” available for sale on the herb market was contaminated with similar-appearing foxglove (digitalis), an herb with potent and potentially toxic effects on the heart.17
Safety in pregnant or nursing women, young children, or individuals with liver or kidney disease has not been established.
Duckett S. Plantain leaf for poison ivy.
N Engl J Med. 1980;303:583.
Aliev RK. A wound healing preparation from the leaves of the large plantain (
Am J Pharm. 1950;122:24–6.
Koichev A. Complex evaluation of the therapeutic effect of a preparation from
in chronic bronchitis.
Probl Vatr Med. 1983;11:61–9.
Matev M, Angelova I, Koichev A, et al. Clinical trial of
preparation in the treatment of chronic bronchitis.
Vutr Boles. 1982;21:133–7.
Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, et al. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of
extracts: effect on inducible NOS, COX-1, COX-2 and their products in J774A.1 murine macrophages.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:383–91.
Herold A, Cremer L, Calugaru A, et al. Hydroalcoholic plant extracts with anti-inflammatory activity.
Roum ArchMicrobiol Immunol. 2004;62:117–29.
Galvez M, Martin-Cordero C, Lopez-Lazaro M, et al. Cytotoxic effect of
spp. on cancer cell lines.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:125–30.
Chiang LC, Chiang W, Chang MY, Ng LT, Lin CC. Antiviral activity of
extracts and related compounds in vitro.
Gomez-Flores R, Calderon CL, Scheibel LW, et al. Immunoenhancing properties of
Phytother Res. 2001;14:617–22.
Doan DD, Nguyen NH, Doan HK, et al. Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (
J Ethnopharmacol. 1992;36:225–31.
Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds).
The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin: American Botanical Council and Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:186–7.
Taskova R, Evstatieva L, Handjieva N, et al. Iridoid patterns of genus
L. and their systematic significance.
Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002;57:42–50.
Fuchs A, Bowers MD. Patterns of iridoid glycoside production and induction in
and the importance of plant age.
J Chem Ecol. 2004;30:1723–41.
Tamura Y, Nishibe S. Changes in the concentrations of bioactive compounds in plantain leaves.
J Agric FoodChem. 2002;50:2514–8.
Wierzbicka M, Szarek-Lukaszewska G, Grodzinska K, et al. Highly toxic thallium in plants from the vicinity of Olkusz (Poland).
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.
Baroni F, Boscagli A, Protano G, et al. Antimony accumulation in
growing in an old Sb-mining area.
Environ Pollut. 2004;109:347–52.
Whitmore, A. FDA warns consumers against dietary supplement products that may contain digitalis mislabeled as "plantain." Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/NEW00570.html. Accessed May 5, 2005.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services. All rights reserved.