Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of steps to help a person who is not responding and has stopped breathing. CPR helps deliver oxygen rich blood to the body tissue when the body is not able to do this on its own. Infant CPR should be used in babies less than 12 months of age.
CPR is given when an infant has stopped breathing. Reasons for this may include:
The outcome will depend on the cause and how soon effective CPR was started. Many are unable to regain a normal heartbeat after it has stopped.
It is possible that
ribs will fracture
or break during chest compressions.
Greater risk is involved if CPR is delayed or not done correctly.
Check for responsiveness. Tap the infant to check for responsiveness. Call the infant's name if you know it. If the infant is unresponsive, follow these steps:
The length of time for CPR depends on the underlying causes and response time of medical help.
The infant is unconscious when CPR is given. The procedure does not hurt. There may be some soreness in the chest after regaining consciousness.
The emergency team will take over care when they arrive.
The infant will need to be taken to the hospital for evaluation following CPR.
If an infant is unresponsive and someone is with you, have them call for emergency medical services right away. If you are alone, do CPR for about 2 minutes before calling for medical help.
American Heart Association
American Red Cross
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.
Bardy, G.H. A critic's assessment of our approach to cardiac arrest.
New Engl J of Med. 2011;364(4):374-375.
Bush CM, Jones JS, et al. Pediatric injuries from cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28(1):40-44.
Finer NN, Horbar JD, et al. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the very low birth weight infant: The Vermont Oxford Network Experience.
Heartsaver pediatric first aid CPR AED. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/CPRAndECC/CorporateTraining/HeartsaverCourses/Heartsaver-Pediatric-First-Aid-CPR-AED_UCM_303745_Article.jsp. Accessed March 15, 2013.
Part 1: executive summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.. Available at:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/122/18_suppl_3/S640.full. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S640-S656.
Topjian AA, Berg RA, et al. Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: advances in science, techniques, and outcomes.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Marcin Chwistek, MD
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