Marjorie Montemayor-Quellenberg, MA
Insulin is a hormone in the body that helps control glucose levels in the blood. It helps transport glucose from the bloodstream to the cells for energy. Glucose is needed by all cells to perform their functions.
type 1 diabetes
are unable to make insulin. While those with
type 2 diabetes
can make insulin, the body is resistant to it and unable to use it appropriately. As a result, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and the cells become starved, which can lead to serious health problems.
If you have diabetes, you may need to take insulin shots to make up for your body’s inability to make or use naturally occurring insulin. You may need anywhere from 1-4 shots a day. The medication may also be given using a special injector pen or pump.
How much insulin you need depends on several factors, such as your:
Here are different types of insulin that your doctor may prescribe and an approximate onset and duration of action:
Usually taken before a meal to target the sugars consumed during mealtime
Works quickly and does not last long
Keeps blood sugar under control after rapid-acting insulin has stopped working
Slowly absorbed by the body and is long-lasting
There is also premixed insulin, which is a combination of two types. The mix usually consists of rapid- or short-acting insulin combined with intermediate-acting insulin.
You and your doctor will create a diabetes management plan that will outline steps for controlling your diabetes, which involves
diet, physical activity, and medications like insulin. You may need to try different insulin doses or types until you find the regimen that works best for you.
American Diabetes Association
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Diabetes Association
Public Health Agency of Canada
Blair E. Insulin A to Z: a guide on different types of insulin. Joslin Diabetes Center website. Available at: http://www.joslin.org/info/insulin_a_to_z_a_guide_on_different_types_of_insulin.html. Accessed July 14, 2015.
Diabetes: Insulin therapy. American Academy of Family Physcians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/diabetes/treatment/insulin-therapy.html. Updated May 2014. Accessed July 14, 2015.
Insulin management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 20, 2015. Accessed July 14, 2015.
Types of insulin. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/diabetes-medicines/Pages/insert_C.aspx. Accessed July 14, 2015.
Types of insulin and how they work. Group Health website. Available at: https://www.ghc.org/healthAndWellness/index.jhtml?item=%2fcommon%2fhealthAndWellness%2fconditions%2fdiabetes%2finsulinTypes.html. Updated June 12, 2015. Accessed July 14, 2015.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
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