MONDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- A preliminary study of
American kids suggests a connection between listening to pop music
and suffering from major depressive disorder.
But, before you pull the battery from your child's MP3 player,
know that the study did not establish a cause-and-effect
relationship. And there was no clear indication whether kids who
were predisposed to depression were more strongly drawn to music
or, instead, faced a greater risk for depression as a result of
their music exposure.
The finding also didn't nail down exactly what type of music
children and adolescents in the study listened to, but rather
presumed that time spent listening to music was generally spent
listening to the range of pop music currently embraced by the
majority of American teens.
That said, linking pop music exposure to what the study authors
describe as the leading cause of disability in the world could
ultimately reveal mechanisms that might reduce young people's risk
for depression, the researchers said.
"Now this is a preliminary finding, and there's nothing about this that says that music is bad," said study author Dr. Brian A. Primack, an assistant professor of medicine and pediatrics at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. "In fact, it may even be therapeutic, in that teens who are already depressed might be seeking a kind of solace or meaning in the kind of music that they listen to. Or it could be the other possibility, that there are certain messages in music that can unmask a predisposition to depression, or even lead teens to become depressed. We just don't know.
"What is clear is that this seems to be a really strong association," Primack added. "So this could be an interesting marker that can help us recognize depression. And it perhaps has implications for parents and health-care providers, in that it could be that noticing that a teen is listening to music constantly could be a sign of depression."
Primack and his associates report their findings in the April
issue of the
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
It's estimated that kids between the ages of 8 and 18 are
exposed to 10 hours a day of media in one form or another, the
To explore the possible relationship between some forms of media
exposure and a risk for depression among children, the research
team analyzed data that had been collected between 2003 and 2008 as
part of the Child and Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Study
conducted at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in
Pittsburgh. The kids' ages ranged from 7 to 17.
Forty-six of the 106 mostly white participants, whose average
age was 12.7 years, were experiencing a major depressive disorder
episode at the time of study (as determined by an initial
psychiatric interview). Of those, nearly three in four also had an
anxiety disorder, while the other 60 kids had no prior history of
Over the two-month study period, the participants (63 percent of
whom were female) were interviewed by phone 12 times on five
separate weekends and asked to detail their exposure to any of
these five media: TV/movies, music, video games, the Internet, and
printed matter (such as books, magazines and/or newspapers).
The study authors determined that age and gender had little
bearing on whether or not the children were found to have major
However, in terms of media exposure, the more they listened to
music (via MP3 or CD players), the greater the likelihood of having
major depressive disorder.
When the researchers divided media exposure into four levels,
ranging from least to most exposure, they found each increasing
level of music exposure was associated with an 80 percent increase
in depression risk.
In contrast, exposure to print media was linked to a lower risk
for depression. With each increasing level of exposure to print
media, depression risk dropped by 50 percent.
TV, Internet, and video game exposure was not found to have a
statistically significant association with depression risk one way
or the other.
The study authors stressed that although the findings seem to
confirm previous evidence of music and print's impact on teen
depression, more research is needed to further explain the
Michael W. O'Hara, a professor of psychology at the University
of Iowa in Iowa City, cautioned that while the study made "some
interesting observations," the very nature of this kind of
investigation makes it difficult to isolate exactly what's
"It's very hard to control for outside influences apart from, say, music exposure," he noted. "For example, things like poverty and low socioeconomic status are associated with a risk for depression and lots of other problems, and you would have to factor that in to see how big a role that plays as opposed to simply exposure to various forms of media.
"Of course, we do know that teens and adults who are more active and more socially engaged with others are less likely to have problems with depression," O'Hara added. "So music listening could be one of those activities that encourages teens to pull back from social interaction and dwell instead on their inner life. And, yes, perhaps that could raise a risk for depression."
For more on adolescent depression, visit the
U.S. National Institutes of Health.
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