MONDAY, Feb. 6 (HealthDay News) -- When it comes to the
treatment of type 2 diabetes, the first line of defense is
lifestyle changes such as losing weight and exercising more
But, if those lifestyle changes don't get blood sugar levels
under control, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends
the drug metformin as the first oral treatment that should be
If metformin alone can't control blood sugar levels, the ACP
advises combining metformin with another blood-sugar lowering
medication. But, the evidence isn't yet strong enough for the
doctor's group to recommend one medication over another for
"Most diabetes medications do lower [blood sugar], but metformin is more effective with fewer side effects. And, the cost is less," said Dr. Amir Qaseem, director of clinical policy at the American College of Physicians, and the lead author of the new guidelines.
However, the ACP is recommending that metformin only be
prescribed after someone has tried to change his or her lifestyle,
"Diet, exercise and weight loss are so important in controlling type 2 diabetes. You can't just give pharmaceutical agents and not have lifestyle changes," Qaseem said.
The new guidelines are published in the Feb. 7 issue of the
Annals of Internal Medicine.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that causes high blood sugar
levels. Over time, this can lead to blood-vessel damage in the
eyes, kidneys, heart and nerves. Almost 26 million Americans have
diabetes, and as many as 95 percent of those have type 2 diabetes,
according to the new guidelines.
"Diabetes is a really important health-care issue in this country. It's a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and the prevalence of the disease is going up," Qaseem said.
Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are significant risk factors
for type 2 diabetes, although not everyone who has the disease is
There are currently 11 different classes of medications approved
by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of type
2 diabetes, according to the guidelines. These medications work by
lowering blood sugar levels.
To come up with the new guidelines on oral diabetes treatments,
the reviewers looked at data for each available class of medication
to assess how effective it was in lowering blood sugar, cholesterol
and weight. They also looked at how much each medication was able
to reduce the risk of complications from type 2 diabetes. And, they
reviewed the safety of each type of medication.
They found that metformin was the most effective in lowering
hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels. HbA1C levels are a measure of
long-term blood sugar control, estimating average blood sugar
levels over several months.
The researchers also found that combination therapy with two
drugs was more effective at lowering HbA1C than therapy with just
one agent. However, when comparing different combination therapies,
no particular combination stood out as superior to the others.
Metformin also appeared to be the most effective medication for
lowering levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol, according to the
guidelines. Metformin also seemed to be more effective at
preventing all-cause mortality and heart disease.
Dr. Joel Zonszein, director of the clinical diabetes program at
Montefiore Medical Center in New York City, said he would recommend
starting medication along with lifestyle changes, instead of
waiting to see if lifestyle medications work or not.
"Lifestyle changes fail in the majority of people. Why wait to start treating them? There should not be inertia. If you're more aggressive early in the disease you may be able to protect some of the beta cells," he said. Beta cells are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone needed to metabolize carbohydrates in food.
Zonszein also said that many of the studies used to develop the
new guidelines were short-term studies, often sponsored by drug
manufacturers. He said to really know what treatments are best,
longer-term studies are needed, as are studies that look at
different combinations of diabetes medications.
He said he also would have liked the guidelines to address the
use of cholesterol-lowering medications and blood-pressure lowering
medications, as these are common problems seen in people with type
The American Diabetes Association has more information on the
oral medications available for type 2
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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