WEDNESDAY, March 13 (HealthDay News) -- Fathers interested in
creating a sense of closeness with their daughters should look for
fun things to do together, a new study suggests.
When researchers asked fathers and daughters what experiences
most affected their relationships in a notable way, they learned
that girls seemed to appreciate engaging in the same kinds of
things with their dads that sons typically do: playing sports,
doing household projects, working together, or taking a road
The male-female aspect of the father-daughter relationship can
present a challenge for many fathers, said lead study author Mark
Morman, a professor of communication at Baylor College of Arts and
Sciences in Waco, Texas. Men usually get closer to other men by
doing things together, such as playing a game of pick-up basketball
or watching television, while women tend to bond through
heart-to-heart talks and sharing details about the day. Men are
drawn to activities, while women connect through dialogue, he
Fathers and daughters who find a way to bridge that gap tend to
be closer than those who don't, and it seems typically to involve
having the father draw the daughter into the masculine way of
connecting: doing things together, explained Morman.
"We found fathers tend to pull their daughters to the masculine, to the activity orientation they do with other men," said Morman. Some men have anxiety about doing feminine things in order to bond with their daughters, he added. However, "the activity doesn't really matter as long as both people are interested," he said.
For both fathers and daughters, sports were most frequently
cited for creating closeness in their relationship.
The importance of the father-daughter relationship has been
understudied, said Peggy Drexler, assistant professor of psychology
in psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University in New
York City. "Years ago, the dad's job used to be to prepare his
daughter to hand her off to a man to marry. The relationships
didn't seem to have enough depth to study," she noted.
But Drexler said that changed dramatically in the United States
with the passage of Title IX in 1972, a law that banned sex
discrimination in school programs -- both academic and athletic --
receiving federal aid. "In the 1970s and 1980s, girls were suddenly
viewed less and less as delicate flowers," Drexler said. "Sports
became a great bridge to draw girls into activities with their
Drexler said that as fathers and daughters began to spend more
time together, the traditional father-daughter relationship
dissipated. The notion of a "daddy's girl" morphed into the idea
that a daughter would go out on the field and make her father
proud, she explained.
But the relationship between father and daughter often goes
beyond sports, noted Drexler, who was not involved with the study.
"Dads are now shopping for prom dresses with their daughters.
They're getting involved in ways that are enhancing the
relationship between father and daughter," she said.
The research, published recently in the
Journal of Human Communication, involved asking 43 fathers
and 43 daughters who were unrelated to identify in writing a time
that changed the closeness of their relationships.
The technique -- called turning point analysis -- is commonly
used to study family communication styles and issues, said Morman.
"The assumption is that if I only ask you for one thing, you're
going to tell me a really important one. Whether it's a positive or
a negative turning point that affects closeness, that's pretty
informative," he said.
Daughters in the study were at least 22 years old, and fathers
ranged from 45 to 70. People with step-family and adoptive
relationships were included.
In addition to identifying the benefit of shared activities, the
researchers also learned how the father-daughter relationships
changed at critical milestones: adolescence, a family crisis, the
parents' divorce, graduation from high school or college, a
daughter's marriage and motherhood.
For both daughters and fathers, marriage was the second most
frequently reported turning point, creating either greater
father-daughter closeness or generating a sense of distance. The
third most commonly mentioned change for daughters was leaving
home, while for dads, it was when their daughters started to
No matter what activities or milestones seem most important to
fathers and daughters over time, Drexler said a strong relationship
between father and daughter can set up a girl for success later in
"It's all about time, trust, engagement, nurturing, empathy, interest and shared experiences," she said.
Learn more about parenting from the
American Academy of Pediatrics.
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