Alayne Ronnenberg, ScD
The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included, so ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications only as recommended by your doctor, or according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.
Medications used for the treatment of
include the following:
Common names include:
Testosterone is used in hypogonadism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty in which the production of testosterone by the gonads is missing or inadequate. Testosterone is needed for sperm production. Testosterone can be given by mouth, injection, or patch.
Possible side effects include:
is prescribed to men who have infertility due to hormonal imbalances. Clomiphene citrate causes an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This increases the signal to the testes to increase testosterone production and sperm production. In combination with vitamin E, clomiphene may increase sperm count, sperm mobility, and pregnancy rates.
These drugs are used to treat hypogonadism, which is low testosterone and sperm production. They stimulate the Leydig cells of the testes to produce more male hormones, particularly testosterone, which stimulates sperm production.
hCG is injected into the muscle two to three times a week. You may need to receive this medication for several weeks, months, or longer. If you are being treated for a low sperm count and have been on this medication for six months, your doctor may give you another hormone medication, such as menotropin or urofollitropin injection. You may need to receive both of these medications together for up to twelve additional months.
Menotropins (hMG) are a mixture of FSH and LH that are naturally produced by the pituitary gland. These are also injected into a muscle three times a week for four or more months. Usually, you will be given another medication called chorionic gonadotropin before and during treatment with menotropins.
This drug is prescribed for men who have elevated levels of the pituitary hormone prolactin, which interferes with other hormones. The drug is provided as a tablet, which is taken with food 1 to 3 times daily.
Whenever you are taking a prescription medication, take the following precautions:
Demirol A, Gurgan T. Comparison of different gonadotrophin preparations in intrauterine insemination cycles for the treatment of unexplained infertility: a prospective, randomized study.
Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men. Updated February 26, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Kosmas IP, Tatsioni A, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration vs. lutenizing monitoring for intrauterine insemination timing, after administration of clomiphene citrate: a meta-analysis.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine website. Available at:
. Accessed December 2, 2013.
Revelli A, Poso F, et al. Recombinant versus highly-purified, urinary follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH vs. HP-uFSH) in ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized study with cost-minimization analysis.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol.
2006 Jul 18;4:38.
9/2/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men: Ghanem H, Shaeer O, El-Segini A. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;92(7):2232-2235.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
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