Karen Schroeder Kassel, MS, RD, MEd
Can you knock off eight miles on the track or an hour on the bike, but struggle through a few pull-ups? Despite your commitment to fitness, your workout is likely missing something. You know what I'm talking about. Runners and cyclists enjoy cardiovascular workouts so much that we tend to neglect an essential part of total fitness—strength training.
You need not spend hours in the gym getting pumped up to enjoy the benefits of weight training. You can make gains in strength, power, and fitness in as little as two sessions as week.
Regular weight training makes you stronger, and we're not just talking about bulging biceps. Weight training strengthens bones, ligaments, and tendons as well as muscles, all of which translate into improved balance, greater power, quicker recovery, and a reduced risk for injury.
In fact, performing only aerobic exercise, could result in an overuse injury. Running, for example, works your calves and hamstrings, but ignores the upper body. By strengthening all the major muscle groups, you can avoid an imbalance and reduce your risk for injury.
Developing a strong core is important. Your core strength comes from the muscles that stabilize the spine, pelvis, rib cage, and hips. Basic exercises, such as crunches, lunges, and squats, can help build your core.
Machines, dumbbells, balls? Which is right for you? All of it. Vary your workout to avoid boredom and maximize results.
Machines are a good way to begin.
The machine will guide your movement and reduce the chances of injury.
Beginners should start with light weight to avoid overworking the muscles and to develop a consistent routine. Lift one day per week for the first few weeks, and then add a second session. Start with one set of a weight you can lift for 8-10 repetitions and increase to 2-3 sets.
After you have established a regular routine, increase the weight by 5%-10% per week. Strive for a weight that you can lift 8-10 times for 2-3 sets. By the last repetition, you should be tired and unable to do another, yet still in good form. Do this by lifting and lowering slowly. Do not let gravity pull the weight down for you.
Free weights add a new dimension of difficulty. Now you have to perform the desired movement while keeping your whole body stabilized. The result is that more muscles are engaged and you get a more efficient workout. However, it's easier to cheat with free weights. You can push a weight too fast and use the momentum instead of your own power. To avoid cheating, form should be slow and controlled, not bouncy or jerky. Lift for 3-4 seconds, pause for 1 second, lower for 3-4 seconds.
Traditionally used only by physical therapists, these portable, multi-colored, oversized rubber bands are commonly found in gyms. They are best used to supplement training with weight machines or free weights. The exact resistance of the bands is difficult to determine, and they are limited by the maximum resistance they provide.
Medicine balls are available in a range of weights and can add a significant amount of resistance to your lifts. Check with a strength and conditioning specialist or a certified athletic trainer for the best way to use them. For instance, you can do sit-ups with your arms stretched straight above your head, holding a medicine ball.
Stability or balance balls are are meant to be sat on. For example, you can balance your behind and lower back on the ball with your feet planted on the floor. Then, you can do sit-ups or upper-body free weight exercises. Using the stability ball triggers your body to use more and different muscles than are normally engaged. And these are the core muscles—abdominals and lower back—that are key to overall strength and power.
What about when you are stranded on a desert island with no equipment? Well, there is one thing you can do: drop and give me 20! By using your own body weight as resistance, you can get a significant workout doing push-ups, sit-ups, chin-ups, lunges, squats, and triceps dips. Do jumping jacks before and between each exercise to keep your heart rate up.
The fitness industry is constantly developing new tools and techniques to help you change your routine. Keep an open mind about new activities and equipment, but also be cautious. Ask a trusted fitness professional for advice.
Although some muscle soreness is normal the day after lifting, weight lifting injuries are rare. However, if you experience any of the following, rest a few days and see your doctor if you do not feel better:
A balanced program includes cardio work, strength training, and flexibility exercises. It may sound difficult to fit each of these into your week, but a personal trainer can help design a weight training program to develop your core as well as your outer strength. Before you know it, you'll be jumping higher, running faster, pedaling harder, and looking and feeling stronger and more confident.
Try the following strength training circuit:
Here are the details of a strength circuit:
Holding dumbbells, stand on an 8 to 16-inch platform that is about the height of a park bench. Step down with the right foot, pause, and then step back up. Do 10 reps then switch legs.
With your hands wider than your shoulders on the bar, pull yourself up until your chin tops the bar.
With your hands shoulder-width apart, lower your chest, bending elbows to 90 degrees. Keep your body straight from shoulders to knees. Push back up.
You will need the hanging ab set-up at the gym for this one. Stabilize arms and lift knees toward chest. Or substitute a crunch: lie face up with knees bent, sit up to 45 degrees, and then lower.
Hold dumbbells just above shoulder level. Bend knees to 90 degrees. Push arms overhead as you stand up, then lower weights back to shoulder level.
Hold dumbbells down in front of you, palms facing out. Curl up till hands are near your shoulders, then lower.
Standing, hold a bar with your arms straight down in front of you, palms facing your thighs and hands six inches apart. Pull the bar to chin level, then lower.
Stand in front of a bench, reach back and grip the edge of the bench so that your forearms are facing away from you, keep your feet shoulder-width apart, firmly planted in front of you. Bend your knees and lower your butt until your upper arms are parallel to the floor, and then push up.
Lie on your side with your feet braced. Cross arms in front of chest and lift torso off the ground 20 degrees for 8-10 reps. Switch sides.
American Council on Exercise (ACE)
4 full-body medicine ball exercises to boost your calorie burn. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy-living-article/60/3533/4-full-body-medicine-ball-exercises-to-boost/. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Circuit training basics. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_living_fit_facts_content.aspx?itemid=3304&category=3. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Core workout. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/fitness_programs_core_workout.aspx?workoutid=5. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Free weights vs. strength-training equipment. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_living_fit_facts_content.aspx?itemid=2655. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Resistance tubing workout. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_living_fit_facts_content.aspx?itemid=237. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Preventing overuse injuries. Stop Sports Injuries website. Available at: http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Rethinking core training. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/certifiednewsarticle/2229/rethinking-core-training/. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Stability ball workout. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/fitness_programs_core_workout.aspx?workoutid=6. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Strength training 101. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/healthy_living_fit_facts_content.aspx?itemid=2661. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Strength and resistance training. The American Council on Exercise website. Available at: http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/fitness-fact/11/strength-and-resistance-training/. Accessed November 13, 2013.
Last reviewed November 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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