Alayne Ronnenberg, ScD
Otitis, or ear infection, can affect the external, middle or the inner part of the ear. Middle ear infection (otitis media) is a common form of ear infection. The “middle ear” is the air-filled part of the ear that lies just behind the ear drum. Doctors cannot normally see the middle ear, but many middle ear problems will produce changes in the appearance of the ear drum that allow an appropriate diagnosis to be made.
Ear infection can occur suddenly, leading to "acute otitis," or can last longer, as in "chronic otitis." Middle ear infections may occur following a cold or other virus, with nasal allergy symptoms, or they may develop without a known cause. Ear infections are much more common in children than adults. For that reason, most of the information on these pages is geared toward children, although the same recommendations apply to adults as well.
Middle ear infections (otitis media) develop when bacteria or viruses get inside the ear and begin to multiply.
These bacteria and viruses often enter the body as respiratory or other infections, such as the
viral sore throat.
Children are more vulnerable to otitis media than are adults. 2 reasons for this difference in vulnerability are:
Ear infections are the most common infections in babies and young children. It is estimated that 3 out of 4 children under the age of 3 will experience as least 1 ear infection, and half of these children will have 3 or more ear infections by the age of 3. Although ear infections themselves are not contagious, the colds and other infections that frequently lead to ear infection can be passed from person to person.
Acute otitis media (AOM). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116345/Acute-otitis-media-AOM. Updated May 17, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Ear infections in children.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
website. Available at:
http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/earinfections.aspx. Published March 2013. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Gates GA. Cost-effectiveness considerations in otitis media treatment.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;114(4):525-530.
Middle ear infections. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at:
http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/ear-nose-throat/Pages/Middle-Ear-Infections.aspx. Updated August 20, 2015. Accessed September 21, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
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