Magnesium

Supplement Forms/Alternate Names

  • Magnesium Chloride
  • Magnesium Citrate
  • Magnesium Fumarate
  • Magnesium Gluconate
  • Magnesium Malate
  • Magnesium Orotate
  • Magnesium Oxide
  • Magnesium Sulfide

Introduction

Magnesium is an essential nutrient found in bran, nuts, and beans. Magnesium has been used to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. It has also been used to ease pain in the body and improve heart health. Magnesium can be taken as a pill or powder. It can also be injected into the bloodstream and muscle by a healthcare provider.

Dosages

300 to 400 milligrams daily

What Research Shows

Likely Effective

May Be Effective

Unlikely to Be Effective

Not Enough Data to Assess

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.
Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Safety Notes

It is likely safe to take magnesium in small doses. Amounts greater than 350 mg per day may be unsafe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. P1
Interactions
Talk to your doctor about any supplements or therapy you would like to use. Some can interfere with treatment or make conditions worse.

References

A Alcohol withdrawal
A1 Sarai M, Tejani AM, et al. Magnesium for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD008358.
B Anxiety
B1 Boyle NB, Lawton C, et al. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Apr 26;9(5).
C Asthma
C1 Knightly R, Millan SJ, et al. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD003898.
D Cardiac Arrhythmias
D1 Lee HY, Ghimire S, et al. Magnesium supplementation reduces postoperative arrhythmias after cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatrics: a metanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Aug;34(6):1396-403.
D2 Salaminia S, Sayehmiri F, et al. Evaluating the effect of magnesium supplementation and cardiac arrhythmias after acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018 Jun 28;18(1):129.
E Cystic Fibrosis
E1 Santi M, Milani GP, et al. Magnesium in cystic fibrosis--Systematic review of the literature. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Feb;51(2):196-202.
F Depression
F1 Derom ML, Sayón-Orea C, et al. Magnesium and depression: a systematic review. Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Sep;16(5):191-206.
G Diabetes
G1 Verma H, Garg R. Effect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017;30(5):621-633.
G2 Simental-Mendía LE, Sahebkar A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Sep;111:272-282.
G3 Fang X, Han H, et al. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016 Nov 19;8(11).
G4 Veronese N, Watutantrige-Fernando S, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;70(12):1354-1359.
H High blood pressure
H1 Kass L, Weekes J, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;66(4):411-418.
H2 Rosanoff A, Plesset MR. Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis. Magnes Res. 2013 Jul-Sep;26(3):93-99.
H3 Zhang X, Li Y, et al. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials. Hypertension. 2016;68(2):324-333.
H4 Dibaba DT, Xun P, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep;106(3):921-929.
I Insulin Resistance
I1 Morais JBS, Severo JS, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on insulin resistance in humans: A systematic review. Nutrition. 2017 Jun;38:54-60.
J Lipid Profile
J1 Simental-Mendía LE, Simental-Mendía M, et al. Effect of magnesium supplementation on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 May;73(5):525-536.
K Metabolic disorders
K1 Qu X, Jin F, et al. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57720.
K2 Fang X, Wang K, et al. Dietary magnesium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMC Med. 2016;14(1):210.
K3 Guerrero-Romero F, Jaquez-Chairez FO, et al. Magnesium in metabolic syndrome: a review based on randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Magnes Res. 2016 Apr 1;29(4):146-153.
K4 Simental-Mendía, Sahebkar A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the effects of magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and glucose control. Pharmacol Res. 2016;111:272-282.
L Migraine
L1 Chiu HY, Yeh TH, et al. Effects of Intravenous and Oral Magnesium on Reducing Migraine: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Pain Physician. 2016;(1):E97-112.
M Muscle cramps
M1 Garrison SR, Allan GM, et al. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(9):CD009402.
M2 Sebo P, Cerutti B, et al. Effect of magnesium therapy on nocturnal leg cramps: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with meta-analysis using simulations. Fam Pract. 2014;31(1):7-19.
N Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia
N1 Duley L, Gülmezoglu AM, et al. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(11):CD000025.
N2 Duly L, Henderson-Smart DJ, et al. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD000127.
O Pregnancy support
O1 Makrides M, Crosby DD, et al. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD000937.
O2 Zhou K, West HM, et al. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 11;(8):CD010655.
P Safety
P1 Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html. Accessed October 1, 2019.
Q Tetanus
Q1 Rodrio C, Samarakoon L, et al. A meta-analysis of magnesium for tetanus. Anaesthesia. 2012;67(12):1370-1374.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO NAT Review Board Eric Hurwitz, DC
  • Review Date: 03/2020
  • Update Date: 06/29/2020