Indigestion is discomfort in the upper abdomen or chest. It is often linked to nausea, belching, or bloating.
The exact cause is not known. Most often, the condition is linked to a number of unhealthy lifestyle factors. These factors can result in poor digestion.
The following lifestyle factors increase your chances of indigestion:
Indigestion is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including:
It is common to have indigestion occasionally. If the episodes worsen or happen more frequently, make an appointment to see your doctor. If you have indigestion, important reasons to call your doctor include:
Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you have:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. Indigestion is diagnosed mainly on the symptoms listed above.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Your bodily structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:
The rate at which the stomach empties may need to be evaluated. This can be done with a gastric emptying study.
Your doctor will suggest a plan based on the severity of your symptoms. Treatment options may include the following:
Your doctor may advise you to:
Medications your doctor may recommend include:
To prevent indigestion:
The American College of Gastroenterology
American Gastroenterological Association
The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Dyspepsia: treatment. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor website. Available at:
Updated February 2014. Accessed December 18, 2014.
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Mertz H, Fullerton S, Naliboff B, Mayer EA. Symptoms and visceral perception in severe functional organic dyspepsia.
Tack J, Talley NJ, Camilleri M, et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders.
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3/1/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Maalox Total Relief and Maalox liquid products: medication use errors. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm200672.htm. Published February 17, 2010. Accessed December 18, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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