Editorial Staff and Contributors
Osteoporosis is a disease marked by decreasing bone mass and density, making bones weak and brittle. If left unchecked, it can lead to
fracture. Any bone can be affected. Fractures of special concern are of the
Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance between bone loss and bone formation (known as bone remodeling). After age 30, bone loss occurs more quickly. Many factors over the course of a lifetime can influence bone remodeling.
Osteoporosis is more common in older adults. It is more common in women than in men. People of Caucasian, Asian, or Hispanic ethnicity are more likely to get osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is more likely to occur if full bone mass was not achieved during your bone-building years. Other factors that may increase your chance of osteoporosis include:
In most cases, people with osteoporosis remain symptom-free until there is a fracture. In those who do have symptoms, osteoporosis may cause:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include:
Osteoporosis can be seen with bone mineral density (BMD) tests of the hip, spine, wrist, or other site. These may include:
The treatment and management of osteoporosis involves lifestyle changes and medications. Although osteoporosis is highly preventable, it cannot be cured. Treatment focuses on reducing the incidence of fractures and slowing bone loss.
Decrease your intake of
alcohol. Eat a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is in:
Do not smoke.
If you smoke,
talk with your doctor about ways you can successfully
Exercise improves bone health. It also increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance. Do weight-bearing and strength-training exercises for maximum benefit. Balance training may
prevent falls and fractures.
People who cannot eat enough calcium from food might want to take calcium supplements.
Vitamin D and other supplements may also be advised.
Talk with your doctor before
taking herbs or supplements.
Falls can increase the chance of fracture in someone with osteoporosis. Here are ways to prevent falls:
Certain medications can help prevent bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce your risk of fractures. These may include:
Building strong bones throughout your early years is the best defense against osteoporosis. Getting enough calcium,
vitamin D, and regular exercise can keep bones strong throughout life.
To help reduce your chance of osteoporosis:
NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center
National Osteoporosis Foundation
Women's Health Matters
Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at:
http://www.nof.org/files/nof/public/content/file/950/upload/523.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed June 4, 2015.
Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, et al. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis.
Am J Clin Nutr.
Khosla L, Melton LJ. Clinical practice: osteopenia.
N Engl J Med.
Making a diagnosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at:
http://nof.org/articles/8. Accessed June 4, 2015.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 15, 2015. Accessed June 4, 2015.
Osteoporosis causes and risk factors. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 7, 2014. Accessed June 4, 2015.
Sambrook P, Cooper C. Osteoporosis.
10/6/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1256-1261.
5/16/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr, Forciea MA, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians. Screening for osteoporosis in men: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.
Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:680-684.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
2009;180:32-39. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores.
6/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: FDA approves new injectable osteoporosis treatment for postmenopausal women. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm214150.htm. Published June 1, 2010. Accessed June 4, 2015.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Fabienne Daguilh, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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