Amy Scholten, MPH
Related Media: Metabolic Syndrome—Reducing Your Risk Factors
What Is Metabolic Syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome puts a person at risk for:
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by:
The exact cause of metabolic syndrome is not known. It believed to be due to a combination of factors, such as:
Factors that increase your risk of metabolic syndrome include:
Except for obesity, there are no obvious symptoms.
You may be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome if you have at least three of the following:
*mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter blood, mmol/L = millimoles per liter blood
The treatment of metabolic syndrome involves:
or other weight loss surgery may be helpful to treat metabolic syndrome. Talk to your doctor to learn if this is an option for you.
To reduce your chances of metabolic syndrome, take these steps:
American Heart Association
National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Canadian Diabetes Association
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Metabolic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated March 29, 2013. Accessed May 14, 2013.
What is metabolic syndrome?
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website.
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/. Updated November 3, 2011. Accessed May 14, 2013.
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Arch Int Med. 2008;168:207-217.
1/13/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Salas-Salvadó J, Fernández-Ballart J, Ros E, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial.
Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:2449-2458.
2/17/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Davidson LE, Hudson R, Kilpatrick K, et al. Effects of exercise modality on insulin resistance and functional limitation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.
Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:122-131.
5/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Diabetes Care. 2009;32:688-694.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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