MONDAY, Feb. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Infants of mothers who smoke
or use nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy are more
likely to have colic, a new study finds.
Colicky babies cry inconsolably for several hours a day, and
researchers in the Netherlands found that exposure to nicotine --
either from cigarettes or nicotine replacement therapy -- was
associated with a significantly increased risk of colic, ranging
from 30 to 60 percent.
"The theory is that there are nicotine receptors in the GI [gastrointestinal] system and nicotine receptors that alter serotonin, and these alterations affect the babies after birth, causing colic," Dr. Jennifer Wu, an obstetrician-gynecologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said. Serotonin is believed to promote feelings of well-being.
The researchers looked at data on interviews with more than
63,000 mothers included in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Interviews were done during pregnancy and six months after they had
About 74 percent of the moms didn't smoke; 24 percent did smoke;
0.3 percent of women used nicotine replacement therapy, which can
include patches, inhalers or gum; while 2 percent of women smoked
and used nicotine replacement therapy.
About 8 percent of babies had colic. Colic, which usually starts
when a baby is a few weeks old, involves crying excessively for at
least three hours a day, more than three days a week, for more than
The causes of colic aren't well understood, nor are the reasons
why nicotine might raise the risk of colic, Wu said. Prior research
has also shown smoking to be associated with colic. However, these
studies do not prove cause and effect.
The study is published online Feb. 20 and in the March issue of
In the United States, obstetricians don't often prescribe
nicotine replacement in pregnant women, said Daniel Jacobsen, a
nurse practitioner at North Shore-LIJ Health System's Center for
Tobacco Control in Great Neck, N.Y.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
guidelines for treating tobacco dependence, "it is not recommended
to use nicotine replacement therapy when treating pregnant women,"
Instead, he tries counseling and behavioral therapy, even
hypnosis, to help women overcome the addiction.
"A very small percentage of women continue to smoke throughout their pregnancy. Most women, when they find out they're pregnant, are able to quit," he said.
Wu agreed that there are cultural differences between Danish and
American women. "It's very rare that you have a patient that smokes
regularly, who is of childbearing age and who hasn't quit long
before they're trying to have a baby," she said.
However, occasionally a woman just can't seem to stop. In that
case, Wu and Jacobsen said they might turn to nicotine
Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low-birthweight
babies, which can affect their growth and development throughout
life. Smoking is also associated with spontaneous abortion,
stillbirth and sudden infant death syndrome, Jacobsen said.
Colic, though frustrating and difficult, typically passes after
a few weeks or months.
"Nicotine replacement is not the recommended treatment, but when women are still smoking in high amounts and are exposing themselves and their fetus to all these toxins, it is sometimes thought to be the lesser harm," Jacobsen said.
One of his patients, for example, tried behavioral therapy to no
avail. While pregnant, she used a nicotine inhaler for about two
weeks, and then was able to stop smoking, he said.
"Colic can be hard on the parents. It's a nuisance ... but the physical effects the tobacco causes on the fetus are worse," Jacobsen said. "They can cause death or severe problems throughout the lifespan."
Nemours Foundation has more on colic.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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